Tuesday, October 25, 2016

Romans 4 אגרת פולוס השליח אל-הרומיים

1. What does Paul mean by describing Abraham as our father “according to the flesh”, what is that symbolic of?

2. How does this also make Him the father of others?

3. What is the definition of יֵחָשֵׁב yachshav; or it’s root “chashav” how does Paul use it here in it’s relation to Gen. 15:6 and Psalm 119:123?

4. What verbal analogy from another character in Scripture does Paul now use and what kind of rabbinical form of argument is Paul now employing?

5. How does the blessing in Gen. 15:6 apply universally and what is it depended upon according to Paul?

6. Paul asks an important question in vs. 10, why is the question important and what are the implications of the correct answer?

7. Vs. 12 Paul says, he is the father of the circumcised, who are these, and who else is he the father of and on what basis?

8. What does “heir of the world” mean? Define this phrase…
Pgs. 166-167

9. What does the text mean when it says, “those who are of the Torah are heirs, trust has become empty”… what does it really mean to be B’nei Avraham? Explain…

10. What is the next “purpose of the Torah” that Paul now introduces, and how does this explain why Torah cannot be used to merit righteousness?

11. How important was Paul’s example of Abraham’s faith, how it was strengthened and how it gave glory to God?  Explain the statement in vs. 20…

Wednesday, October 19, 2016

Romans 3 אגרת פולוס השליח אל-הרומיים

Romans 3  Tree of Life Version (TLV)

1. Last week, Paul made the point that both Jew and Gentile are equally guilty for breaking the Torah and sinning against God – he now begins ch. 3 with two questions.  Is there any advantage then in having the Jewish people anymore as being a distinct nation?  If yes, what are those advantages according to this chapter and the rest of the Bible?  Give references…

2. If human disobedience to God does not nullifies God’s plan to have an “elected nation” (i.e. Israel), how exactly then does this demonstrate God’s righteousness and His innocence in punishment?  Give Biblical references?

3. What is the Biblical and Jewish premise of God’s judgment in wrath?  Give examples

4. How does Paul deal with the argument that our sin proves God’s righteousness?  Explain…

5. Paul now gives his own Biblical evidence for the argument that both Jew and non-Jew are both bound up in sin, how is this same argument also supported by Jewish literature?

6. What is one of the main purposes of the Torah, and what is the Torah powerless to accomplish, according to our chapter and to the Bible overall?

7. If the Torah is not the “source of righteousness”, what is?

8. Is the true source of righteousness antithetical towards Judaism? If not, give Biblical and Jewish references to support…

9. How does God make a man righteous and what is the definition of “Mishpot”?

10. So if the way to make one righteous is separate from the Torah, does Faith (emunah) nullify the Torah? If not, then why have Torah?

Wednesday, October 12, 2016

Romans 2 אגרת פולוס השליח אל-הרומיים

Romans 2

1. Who is Paul talking to by using the phrase “O man”?

2. What are the two related principles Paul brings up in this chapter, summarize the two sections?

3. Explain the spiritual principle of מדה כנגד מדה “middah kneged middah” (measure for measure), and how does Shaul use it in his argument?

4. What is the Greek word for “belittle” in vs. 4, how else can it be translated and what is the accusation that Paul is making using this word?

5. Vs. 4, Shaul says that kindness leads to repentance; give other biblical examples of how this is true…

6. What is the meaning of “keshei oref” קְשֵׁה-עֹרֶף  in Exodus 33:3, and “ve-chizkei lev” וְחִזְקֵי-לֵב in Ezekiel 2:4 and how does it relate to our chapter?

7. What does Paul mean by saying “storing up wrath” and how is it “Jewish”?

8. How is “self-seeking” connected to the “Spirit of Perversity” and where else is this found in the Bible?

9. Who is Paul talking about when he describes some people as “sinned without the Law”?

10. Who are the B’nei Brit; and how does Paul describe them as opposed to those who “do not have the Law”?

11. According to commentators, what does Paul mean when he says, “They are a law unto themselves”; also what is your opinion of what he means?

12. What does it mean to bear the name “Jew”, what are the implications according to Paul?

13. What is Chilul Hashem חילול השם  and how does Paul say that Jews dishonor God and slander Him among the nations? Give the citation…

14. How can a righteous deed by an uncircumcised person be counted to him as “circumcision”? explain…

Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Romans 1 אגרת פולוס השליח אל-הרומיים

1. Who is the author of this epistle, and what do we know about him?

2. What titles does he give himself in introduction to ch. 1?

3. Compare the call to preach Messiah, to what the Qumran community called the “Teacher of Righteousness”, how does this relate to verse 1?

4. What does Pesachim 54a (Talmud) have to say about Pre-existence of the Messiah, and how does this relate to the intro to Ch. 1?

5. What does Jewish literature say about the Messiah being a descendant of David? Give an example…

6. How is it “Jewish” that the Messiah would be the “Son of God” as described here in vs. 4; give an example from the Tanakh (O.T.), and an example from Jewish literature.

7. How is “apostleship” or the office of Shaliach given and for what purpose and from whom; what do the commentaries say?

8. Shaul claims that the community in Rome’s faith became known throughout the world – how is this true, give Biblical references?

9. Why does Shaul want to get to Rome, for what purpose and what spiritual benefit; and how did Jews perceive these spiritual benefits at this time in the first century?

10. What is the “fruit” that Paul is referring to in vs. 13?

11. What is “Emunah”, also what is the “Righteousness of God”; and what does Shaul mean when he says, from “trust to trust” – how do the commentaries explain these?

12. Explain the Hebrew concept of “Nistarot” and related it to what Shaul is saying regarding God’s evidence to humanity.

13. Where does idolatry come from and what are it’s results/consequences according to Shaul?

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Acts 28 מעשי השליחים

מעשי השליחים
Acts 28  Tree of Life Version (TLV)

From Malta to Rome

28 Once safely ashore, we learned that the island was called Malta. 2 The natives showed us unusual kindness. Because it had started raining and it was cold, they kindled a fire and welcomed us all.

Acts 28  King James Version (KJV)
28 And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.
2 And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

1. Compare the vs. 1 & 2 in the KJV to the TLV – note the “they” vs. “we/us” statements, and what are three explanations as to why both are used in the traditional Greek according to the commentators?

2. Why would the Maltese natives consider Paul a “murderer”; explain their background, what would make them come to the conclusions they did about Paul?

3. How large was this island and who was Publius and what do we know about him, and why would he have hosted Paul and the group for 3 days?

4. What do we know about a common disease found on Malta that could be related to Publius’ father’s condition, what is it, and what do the Jewish sages say about healings in relation to certain sins the victim may have committed?

5. When did the crew now set sail from Malta, with the most possible accuracy what date would it have been most likely to occur; and explain what is the “Twin Brothers” mentioned in vs. 11?

6. What do we know about the city of Syracuse? (not NY)

7. Who were the “brothers” they met at Puteoli, why did they stay 7 days; and explain who the brothers at Rome were and the significance of where they came from and why it encouraged Paul?

8. Who did Paul later call to see after 3 days in Rome, how did he refer to them (what term is used to describe them), and what explanation did Paul give them for his imprisonment and how was that significant?

9. What is interesting about the council’s response to Paul that they’ve received “no news” about him, yet they do know about this “sect” of Jews (i.e. Messianic Jews) and somehow they know it is spoken against?  Explain this…

10. What is culturally “Jewish” in the description of the disagreements that arose among the Jews who later met to hear Paul share the Good News; and should vs. 28 be interpreted to mean that God is now finished trying to reach the Jews with this Good News, and only Gentiles will now listen?

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Shaliach Shaul's Letter to the Congregation in Rome אגרת פולוס השליח אל-הרומיים

Beginning on Shabbat Shuvah morning Oct. 8th @ 9:00 a.m. we will begin a new Sefer of the Brit Chadasha study for Adults.  The Book of Romans from a Messianic Jewish Perspective.  We will us the Commentary on the Jewish Roots of Romans by Joseph Shulam available on Amazon.  Also, you can register for an email update on the weekly study questions on our website at: http://tikvatcleveland.org/our-community  click on “ADULT BIBLE STUDY” enter your email to register.  Class is free and open to all coffee is served.  Let’s study together!

Acts 27 מעשי השליחים

מעשי השליחים
Acts 27

1. Who was Julius, and what do we know about him?

2. Who was Aristarchus, and where have we seen him before?

3. Why did the group stop in Sidon, why is this significant, and why did Julius allow Paul to go to his friends, what does this imply?

4. Describe the conditions after the departure from Sidon, why was it ideal to set down in Myra, and how was Paul connected to that city before?

5. What do we know about the type of ship Julius found, likely what commodity was it carrying and how was that significant in the ancient middle-east?

6. What does sailing for a “number of days” indicate, how long to scholars think this journey to Cnidus took and why?

7. What “fast” is this passage talking about, what time of year would this be referring to?

8. Why did Paul make such a stern warning, what personal experience of his made him qualified to warn as he did, (cite your source); and was Paul successful in convincing the crew, why or why not?

9. Explain what peril the ship and crew experienced, and how did they avoid “Syrtis”, and what was Syrtis known for?

10. What was the “cargo” that was thrown overboard and what multiple reasons were there for doing this; and what challenges were there for such an undertaking?

11. What is significant about Paul’s “I told you so…” message; and how is Paul like Jonah, and how is Paul “not like Jonah”?

12. Bonus: “How is the theme of Jonah connected to this narrative in ch. 27 regarding the time of year these events are happening”?

13. Why did the crew long for daylight to come, and how was this chapter similar to the story of Homer’s Odyssey?

14. Why did Paul warn against the secret escape by some of the sailors, why did he also encourage them to now eat after 14 days, what is significant of the “breaking of the bread” and why is it also very significant that the number of persons was mentioned?

15. Why did the soldiers want to kill the prisoners, and why did Julius ultimately decide against this, what was his motivation for this?